Android车辆运动轨迹数据采集服务保活的探索与发现

github源码下载地址:https://github.com/geduo83/TrackDataCollect/blob/sync/app/src/main/java/com/geduo/datacollect/alive/

今天是2018年的最后一天,幸好元旦放假三天,有时间来整理下这阵子研究的一点儿新东西,把它记录分享出来,本来这篇文章应该是上个周要完成,但是由于工作忙没有时间写,就拖到今天了,再过几个小时就2019年了,愿新的一年我们都能心想事成。

在上一篇文章Android车辆运动轨迹大数据采集最佳实践(https://blog.csdn.net/geduo_83/article/details/84943984)这篇文章中我们讲到,数据采集服务是一个持久的操作,当采集服务进入后台后,有可能被系统杀死的可能,可用通过账号同步服务SysAdapter来提升进程的优先级来降低采集服务被后台杀死的几率。 本文共介绍了6种后台服务保活方案,下文将逐一介绍。

1.账号同步服务SysAdapter保活

  • 1.1 通过ContentProvider实现数据同步
public class SyncContentProvider extends ContentProvider {
    public static final String CONTENT_URI_BASE = "content://" + SyncControl.CONTENT_AUTHORITY;
    public static final String TABLE_NAME = "data";
    public static final Uri CONTENT_URI = Uri.parse(CONTENT_URI_BASE + "/" + TABLE_NAME);

    @Override
    public boolean onCreate() {
        return true;
    }

    @Nullable
    @Override
    public Cursor query(Uri uri, String[] projection, String selection,
                        String[] selectionArgs, String sortOrder) {
        return null;
    }

    @Nullable
    @Override
    public String getType(Uri uri) {
        return new String();
    }

    @Nullable
    @Override
    public Uri insert(Uri uri, ContentValues values) {
        return null;
    }

    @Override
    public int delete(Uri uri, String selection, String[] selectionArgs) {
        return 0;
    }

    @Override
    public int update(Uri uri, ContentValues values, String selection, String[] selectionArgs) {
        return 0;
    }
}
  • 1.2 关联SyncAdapter通信服务
public class SyncAdapterService extends Service {
	private static final Object lock = new Object();
	private static SyncAdapter mSyncAdapter = null;
	private static int sync_count = 0;
	@Override
	public void onCreate() {
		synchronized (lock) {
			if (mSyncAdapter == null) {
				mSyncAdapter = new SyncAdapter(getApplicationContext(), true);
			}
		}
	}

	@Override
	public IBinder onBind(Intent intent) {
		return mSyncAdapter.getSyncAdapterBinder();
	}

	@Override
	public boolean onUnbind(Intent intent) {
		return super.onUnbind(intent);
	}

	@Override
	public void onTaskRemoved(Intent rootIntent) {
		super.onTaskRemoved(rootIntent);
	}

	static class SyncAdapter extends AbstractThreadedSyncAdapter {
		public SyncAdapter(Context context, boolean autoInitialize) {
			super(context, autoInitialize);
		}

		@Override
		public void onPerformSync(Account account, Bundle extras, String authority, ContentProviderClient provider,
				SyncResult syncResult) {
			// 具体的同步操作,这里主要是为了提高进程优先级
			Log.v("MYTAG", "onPerformSync start...");
			SyncSharedPreference.getInstance(getContext()).addSyncTime("sync_time"+(++sync_count));
		}
	}
}
  • 1.3 使用Sync服务
public class SyncControl {
	public static final long SYNC_FREQUENCY = 5; // 1 hour (in seconds)
	public static final String CONTENT_AUTHORITY = "com.geduo.datacollect";
	public static final String ACCOUNT_TYPE = "com.geduo.datacollect.account";

	@TargetApi(Build.VERSION_CODES.FROYO)
	public static void createSyncAccount(Context context) {
		Log.v("MYTAG", "createSyncAccount start...");
		Account account = SyncAccountService.getAccount(ACCOUNT_TYPE);
		AccountManager accountManager = (AccountManager) context.getSystemService(Context.ACCOUNT_SERVICE);
		if (accountManager.addAccountExplicitly(account, null, null)) {
			ContentResolver.setIsSyncable(account, CONTENT_AUTHORITY, 1);
			ContentResolver.setSyncAutomatically(account, CONTENT_AUTHORITY, true);
			ContentResolver.addPeriodicSync(account, CONTENT_AUTHORITY, new Bundle(), SYNC_FREQUENCY);
		}
	}
	public static void triggerRefresh() {
		Log.v("MYTAG", "triggerRefresh start...");
		Bundle b = new Bundle();
		// Disable sync backoff and ignore sync preferences. In other words...perform sync NOW!
		b.putBoolean(ContentResolver.SYNC_EXTRAS_MANUAL, true);
		b.putBoolean(ContentResolver.SYNC_EXTRAS_EXPEDITED, true);
		ContentResolver.requestSync(
				SyncAccountService.getAccount(ACCOUNT_TYPE), // Sync account
				CONTENT_AUTHORITY,                 // Content authority
				b);                                             // Extras
	}
}

2.Notication保活

  • 2.1 创建前台守护服务DaemonService
public class DaemonService extends Service {
    private static final String TAG = DaemonService.class.getSimpleName();
    public static final int NOTICE_ID = 100;

    @Nullable
    @Override
    public IBinder onBind(Intent intent) {
        return null;
    }


    @Override
    public void onCreate() {
        super.onCreate();
        if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= Build.VERSION_CODES.JELLY_BEAN_MR2) {
            Notification.Builder builder = new Notification.Builder(this);
            builder.setSmallIcon(R.mipmap.ic_launcher);
            builder.setContentTitle("DataCollect");
            builder.setContentText("DataCollect runing...");
            startForeground(NOTICE_ID, builder.build());

            Intent intent = new Intent(this, CancelService.class);
            startService(intent);
        } else {
            startForeground(NOTICE_ID, new Notification());
        }
    }

    @Override
    public int onStartCommand(Intent intent, int flags, int startId) {
        return START_STICKY;
    }

    @Override
    public void onDestroy() {
        super.onDestroy();
        if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= Build.VERSION_CODES.JELLY_BEAN_MR2) {
            NotificationManager mManager = (NotificationManager) getSystemService(NOTIFICATION_SERVICE);
            mManager.cancel(NOTICE_ID);
        }
        Intent intent = new Intent(getApplicationContext(), DaemonService.class);
        startService(intent);
    }
}
  • 2.2 创建一个取消通知图标的服务CancelService,让用户在前台无感知
public class CancelService extends Service {
    @Nullable
    @Override
    public IBinder onBind(Intent intent) {
        return null;
    }

    @Override
    public void onCreate() {
        super.onCreate();
    }

    @Override
    public int onStartCommand(Intent intent, int flags, int startId) {
        if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT > Build.VERSION_CODES.JELLY_BEAN_MR2) {
            Notification.Builder builder = new Notification.Builder(this);
            builder.setSmallIcon(R.mipmap.ic_launcher);
            startForeground(DaemonService.NOTICE_ID, builder.build());
            new Thread(new Runnable() {
                @Override
                public void run() {
                    SystemClock.sleep(1000);
                    stopForeground(true);
                    NotificationManager manager = (NotificationManager) getSystemService(NOTIFICATION_SERVICE);
                    manager.cancel(DaemonService.NOTICE_ID);
                    stopSelf();
                }
            }).start();
        }
        return super.onStartCommand(intent, flags, startId);
    }

    @Override
    public void onDestroy() {
        super.onDestroy();
    }
}
  • 2.3 服务的注册
<service android:name=".alive.notifiy.DaemonService"
                 android:enabled="true"
                 android:exported="true"
                 android:process=":daemon_service"/>


<service android:name=".alive.notifiy.CancelService"
                 android:enabled="true"
                 android:exported="true"
                 android:process=":service"/>
  • 2.4 服务开启
  private void startDaemonService() {
        Intent intent = new Intent(this, DaemonService.class);
        startService(intent);
      }

3.通过1像素Activity保活

  • 3.1 创建1像素透明Activity
public class SinglePixelActivity extends AppCompatActivity {
    private static final String TAG = "SinglePixelActivity";

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(@Nullable Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        Window mWindow = getWindow();
        mWindow.setGravity(Gravity.LEFT | Gravity.TOP);
        WindowManager.LayoutParams attrParams = mWindow.getAttributes();
        attrParams.x = 0;
        attrParams.y = 0;
        attrParams.height = 300;
        attrParams.width = 300;
        mWindow.setAttributes(attrParams);
        // 绑定SinglePixelActivity到ScreenManager
        ScreenManager.getScreenManagerInstance(this).setSingleActivity(this);
    }

    @Override
    protected void onDestroy() {
        if(! SystemUtils.isAPPALive(this,"com.geduo.datacollect")){
            Intent intentAlive = new Intent(this, MainActivity.class);
            intentAlive.setFlags(Intent.FLAG_ACTIVITY_NEW_TASK);
            startActivity(intentAlive);
        }
        super.onDestroy();
    }
}
  • 3.2 创建屏幕锁屏、开屏监听工具类
public class ScreenReceiverUtil {
    private Context mContext;
    // 锁屏广播接收器
    private SreenBroadcastReceiver mScreenReceiver;
    // 屏幕状态改变回调接口
    private SreenStateListener mStateReceiverListener;

    public ScreenReceiverUtil(Context mContext){
        this.mContext = mContext;
    }
    public void setScreenReceiverListener(SreenStateListener mStateReceiverListener){
        mStateReceiverListener = mStateReceiverListener;
        // 动态启动广播接收器
        mScreenReceiver = new SreenBroadcastReceiver();
        IntentFilter filter = new IntentFilter();
        filter.addAction(Intent.ACTION_SCREEN_ON);
        filter.addAction(Intent.ACTION_SCREEN_OFF);
        filter.addAction(Intent.ACTION_USER_PRESENT);
        mContext.registerReceiver(mScreenReceiver,filter);
    }


    public void stopScreenReceiverListener(){
        mContext.unregisterReceiver(mScreenReceiver);
    }


    public  class SreenBroadcastReceiver extends BroadcastReceiver {
        @Override
        public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent) {
            String action = intent.getAction();
            if(mStateReceiverListener == null){
                return;
            }
            if(Intent.ACTION_SCREEN_ON.equals(action)){         // 开屏
                mStateReceiverListener.onSreenOn();
            }else if(Intent.ACTION_SCREEN_OFF.equals(action)){  // 锁屏
                mStateReceiverListener.onSreenOff();
            }else if(Intent.ACTION_USER_PRESENT.equals(action)){ // 解锁
                mStateReceiverListener.onUserPresent();
            }
        }
    }
    // 监听sreen状态对外回调接口
    public interface SreenStateListener {
        void onSreenOn();
        void onSreenOff();
        void onUserPresent();
    }
}

4.双服务保活

  • 4.1 创建主服务MainService
public class MainService extends Service {
    MyBinder binder;
    MyConn conn;

    @Override
    public IBinder onBind(Intent intent) {
        return binder;
    }

    @Override
    public void onCreate() {
        super.onCreate();
        Log.v("MYTAG", "main onCreate start...");
        binder = new MyBinder();
        conn = new MyConn();

        //设置该服务未前台服务
        Intent targetIntent = new Intent(this, MainActivity.class);
        Notification notification = null;
        if (android.os.Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= android.os.Build.VERSION_CODES.JELLY_BEAN) {
            PendingIntent intent = PendingIntent.getActivity(this, 0, targetIntent, 0);
            notification = new Notification.Builder(this).setSmallIcon(R.mipmap.ic_launcher).setContentTitle("DataCollect").setContentText("正在进行数据采集").setContentIntent(intent).build();
        } else {
            notification = new Notification();
            notification.flags = Notification.FLAG_ONGOING_EVENT;
            notification.flags |= Notification.FLAG_NO_CLEAR;
            notification.flags |= Notification.FLAG_FOREGROUND_SERVICE;
        }
        startForeground(1001, notification);
        bindService(new Intent(MainService.this, RemoteService.class), conn, Context.BIND_IMPORTANT);
    }

    class MyBinder extends IMyAidlInterface.Stub {
        @Override
        public String getServiceName() throws RemoteException {
            return MainService.class.getSimpleName();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public int onStartCommand(Intent intent, int flags, int startId) {
        return START_STICKY;
    }

    class MyConn implements ServiceConnection {

        @Override
        public void onServiceConnected(ComponentName name, IBinder service) {
            Log.v("MYTAG", "main onServiceConnected start...");
        }

        @Override
        public void onServiceDisconnected(ComponentName name) {
            Log.v("MYTAG", "main onServiceDisconnected start...");
            startService(new Intent(MainService.this, RemoteService.class));
            bindService(new Intent(MainService.this, RemoteService.class), conn, Context.BIND_IMPORTANT);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void onDestroy() {
        Log.v("onDestroy", "main onDestroy start...");
        startService(new Intent(MainService.this, RemoteService.class));
        bindService(new Intent(MainService.this, RemoteService.class), conn, Context.BIND_IMPORTANT);
    }
}
  • 4.2 创建守护服务
public class RemoteService extends Service {
    MyConn conn;
    MyBinder binder;

    @Override
    public IBinder onBind(Intent intent) {
        return binder;
    }

    @Override
    public void onCreate() {
        super.onCreate();
        Log.v("MYTAG", "remote onCreate start...");
        conn = new MyConn();
        binder = new MyBinder();
        bindService(new Intent(this, MainService.class), conn, Context.BIND_IMPORTANT);
    }

    @Override
    public int onStartCommand(Intent intent, int flags, int startId) {
        return START_STICKY;
    }

    class MyBinder extends IMyAidlInterface.Stub {
        @Override
        public String getServiceName() throws RemoteException {
            return RemoteService.class.getSimpleName();
        }
    }

    class MyConn implements ServiceConnection {

        @Override
        public void onServiceConnected(ComponentName name, IBinder service) {
            Log.v("MYTAG", "remote onServiceConnected start...");
        }

        @Override
        public void onServiceDisconnected(ComponentName name) {
            Log.v("MYTAG", "remote onServiceDisconnected start...");
            startService(new Intent(RemoteService.this, MainService.class));
            bindService(new Intent(RemoteService.this, MainService.class), conn, Context.BIND_IMPORTANT);
        }

    }

    @Override
    public void onDestroy() {
        Log.v("MYTAG", "remote onDestroy start...");
    }
}
  • 4.3 注册服务
<service
            android:name=".alive.doubles.two.MainService"
            android:enabled="true"
            android:exported="true"
            />
        <service
            android:name=".alive.doubles.two.RemoteService"
            android:enabled="true"
            android:exported="true"
            android:process=":remote"
            />
  • 4.4 调用服务
startService (new Intent (this, MainService.class));
startService (new Intent (this, RemoteService.class));

5.定时服务JobService保活

  • 5.1 创建定时服务AliveJobService
@TargetApi(21)
public class AliveJobService extends JobService {
    private final static String TAG = AliveJobService.class.getSimpleName();
    private volatile static Service mKeepAliveService = null;
    public static boolean isJobServiceAlive() {
        return mKeepAliveService != null;
    }

    private static final int MESSAGE_ID_TASK = 0x01;
    private Handler mHandler = new Handler(new Handler.Callback() {
        @Override
        public boolean handleMessage(Message msg) {
            if (SystemUtils.isAPPALive(getApplicationContext(), "com.geduo.datacollect")) {
                Toast.makeText(getApplicationContext(), "app alive", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
            } else {
                Toast.makeText(getApplicationContext(), "app die", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
                startActivity(new Intent(AliveJobService.this,MainActivity.class));
            }
            jobFinished((JobParameters) msg.obj, false);
            return true;
        }
    });

    @Override
    public boolean onStartJob(JobParameters params) {
        Log.d(TAG, "onStartJob start...");
        mKeepAliveService = this;
        Message msg = Message.obtain(mHandler, MESSAGE_ID_TASK, params);
        mHandler.sendMessage(msg);
        return true;
    }

    @Override
    public boolean onStopJob(JobParameters params) {
        Log.d(TAG, "onStopJob start...");
        mHandler.removeMessages(MESSAGE_ID_TASK);
        return false;
    }

    @Override
    public void onDestroy() {
        super.onDestroy();
        Log.d(TAG, "onDestroy start...");
    }

}
  • 5.2 创建JobSchedulerManager管理定时服务
public class JobSchedulerManager {
    private static final int JOB_ID = 1;
    private static JobSchedulerManager mJobManager;
    private JobScheduler mJobScheduler;
    private static Context mContext;

    private JobSchedulerManager(Context ctxt){
        this.mContext = ctxt;
        if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= Build.VERSION_CODES.LOLLIPOP) {
            mJobScheduler = (JobScheduler)ctxt.getSystemService(Context.JOB_SCHEDULER_SERVICE);
        }
    }

    public final static JobSchedulerManager getJobSchedulerInstance(Context ctxt){
        if(mJobManager == null){
            mJobManager = new JobSchedulerManager(ctxt);
        }
        return mJobManager;
    }

    @SuppressLint("MissingPermission")
    public void startJobScheduler(){
        // 如果JobService已经启动或API<21,返回
        if(AliveJobService.isJobServiceAlive() || isBelowLOLLIPOP()){
            return;
        }
        // 构建JobInfo对象,传递给JobSchedulerService
        int id = JOB_ID;
        mJobScheduler.cancel(id);
        JobInfo.Builder builder = new JobInfo.Builder(JOB_ID,new ComponentName(mContext, AliveJobService.class));
        if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= 24) {
            builder.setMinimumLatency(JobInfo.DEFAULT_INITIAL_BACKOFF_MILLIS); //执行的最小延迟时间
            builder.setOverrideDeadline(JobInfo.DEFAULT_INITIAL_BACKOFF_MILLIS);  //执行的最长延时时间
            builder.setMinimumLatency(JobInfo.DEFAULT_INITIAL_BACKOFF_MILLIS);
            builder.setBackoffCriteria(JobInfo.DEFAULT_INITIAL_BACKOFF_MILLIS, JobInfo.BACKOFF_POLICY_LINEAR);//线性重试方案
        } else {
            builder.setPeriodic(JobInfo.DEFAULT_INITIAL_BACKOFF_MILLIS);
        }
        builder.setPersisted(true);  // 设置设备重启时,执行该任务
        builder.setRequiredNetworkType(JobInfo.NETWORK_TYPE_ANY);
        builder.setRequiresCharging(false); // 当插入充电器,执行该任务
        JobInfo info = builder.build();
        mJobScheduler.schedule(info); //开始定时执行该系统任务

   }

    @TargetApi(21)
    public void stopJobScheduler(){
        if(isBelowLOLLIPOP())
            return;
        mJobScheduler.cancelAll();
    }

    private boolean isBelowLOLLIPOP(){
        // API< 21
        return Build.VERSION.SDK_INT < Build.VERSION_CODES.LOLLIPOP;
    }
}

6.流氓手段通过无限循环播放一个无声音乐来保活

  • 6.1 创建服务PlayerMusicService
public class PlayerMusicService extends Service {
    private final static String TAG = "PlayerMusicService";
    private MediaPlayer mMediaPlayer;

    @Nullable
    @Override
    public IBinder onBind(Intent intent) {
        return null;
    }

    @Override
    public void onCreate() {
        super.onCreate();
            Log.d(TAG,"onCreate start...");
        mMediaPlayer = MediaPlayer.create(getApplicationContext(), R.raw.silent);
        mMediaPlayer.setLooping(true);
    }

    @Override
    public int onStartCommand(Intent intent, int flags, int startId) {
        new Thread(new Runnable() {
            @Override
            public void run() {
                startPlayMusic();
            }
        }).start();
        return START_STICKY;
    }

    private void startPlayMusic(){
        if(mMediaPlayer != null){
                Log.d(TAG,"startPlayMusic start...");
            mMediaPlayer.start();
        }
    }

    private void stopPlayMusic(){
        if(mMediaPlayer != null){
                Log.d(TAG,"stopPlayMusic start...");
            mMediaPlayer.stop();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void onDestroy() {
        super.onDestroy();
        stopPlayMusic();
        Log.d(TAG,TAG+"onDestroy start...");
        // 重启自己
        Intent intent = new Intent(getApplicationContext(),PlayerMusicService.class);
        startService(intent);
    }
}
  • 6.2 注册服务
   <service android:name=".alive.music.PlayerMusicService"
                 android:enabled="true"
                 android:exported="true"
                 android:process=":music_service"/>

探索发现

以上就几种常见的后台服务保活常用的解决方案,通过测试发现,Activity保活,Notication保活,双Services守护,SyncAdapter、JobService,循环播放音乐,这些方案不管是明手段还是流氓手段在android5.0下都还算好使,但是在Android6.0以后不管是哪种方案,在app进入后台,亮屏情况下好用,如果手机黑屏情况下,顶多半个小时进程就被系统杀死了,为此我几乎把全网关于Android后台进程保活的文章都看了一遍,方案都大同小异,无外乎就上面所罗列的几种方案。 

那么在6.0以后应用进入后台后,当终端处于黑屏模式,也就是Doze模式时,系统到底进行了哪些操作:

  1. 暂停网络访问。
  2. 系统忽略所有的WakeLock。
  3. 标准的AlarmManager alarms被延缓到下一个maintenance window,但使用AlarmManager的 setAndAllowWhileIdle、setExactAndAllowWhileIdle和setAlarmClock时,alarms定义事件仍会启动。 在这些alarms启动前,系统会短暂地退出Doze模式。
  4. 系统不再进行WiFi扫描。
  5. 系统不允许sync adapters运行。
  6. 系统不允许JobScheduler运行。

android6.0以后google对系统安全这块的保护措施更进一步增强了,程序进入后台系统为了省电,就认为该应用用户已经不再使用了,系统就自动清理掉该进程,有的人可能会问微信,支付宝这些应用为什么用户杀都杀不掉,原因就在于他们已经进入了系统进程白名单了如果你不信你可以去自己看看。 设置白名单有两种方式,一种就是手机厂商自行设置,另外一种就需要用户进入手机省电模式自己进行手动设置。 

所以最终结论: 在7.0这个版本,如果不通过用户或厂家设置,至少service是绝对没有任何办法保活的,绝对,除非你还能找到未知的BUG。进入进程白名单,然后通过双服务保活,加上JobService定时任务保驾护航,就可以解决问题了。但我真的很赞同谷歌这样的做法,如果每个应用都是后台常驻,整个系统的性能将大打折扣,都说android 手机耗电,现在android可以说是将一切统统杀掉,然后最后的决定权留给用户。

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    nickName  : "geduo_83",
    site : "http://www.weibo.com/geduo83"
  }
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